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Dinosaur

Dinosaur


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Before you ask me what it looks like, I'll tell you. With a squirrel, but the plan was a dinosaur. Because I worked with muffins, the squirrel came out more :)))
I used the same caterpillars from the caterpillar: http: //www.bucataras.ro/retete/omiduta-20884.html

  • 2 brioche
  • 50 ml of whipped cream
  • food coloring
  • pieces of chocolate for garnish
  • eye candy

Servings: 1

Preparation time: less than 15 minutes

DINOSAUR RECIPE PREPARATION:


The Rock has a dinosaur body

The Rock looked impressed by the treatment, despite leaving him with more than a dozen painful spots on his back. In the distributed photo, he wore nothing but a white towel.

"I did cupping for the first time here. It looks worse than it actually feels. But in conclusion, I liked the therapy. I am always looking for new techniques to keep this 250 million year old dinosaur body balanced and optimal.

Not only with all my past injuries, but also with my daily family / work / training / rehearsal schedule. It takes everything, so being proactive is essential. We only have one body, so we have to take care of it ", he subtitled the photo next to an emoji with his hand raised.


Prunariu, 40 from the first flight of a Romanian in space: We are dinosaurs, but with a special experience

Dumitru Dorin Prunariu declared on Tuesday, at a conference that marked 40 from the first flight of a Romanian space, that its anniversary is a reason to mark what Romania has achieved so far and what it is doing now and its prospects. the realm of outer space. The President of the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA), Marius Ioan Piso, specified that Romania has a chance to send, in the coming years, an astronaut through the European Space Agency (ESA), with which our country is currently developing 17 programs.

& bdquoThe anniversary of my flight is a reason to mark what Romania has achieved so far and what it is now achieving and its perspectives in the field of outer space. We're still going, I haven't retired. We are indeed, say, dinosaurs, but dinosaurs who have gained a great deal of experience, including diplomacy, which we value only to their full potential, "said Prunariu, who is vice chairman of a working group. of the UN drawing up the 2030 space agenda.

Prunariu was the 103rd man to fly in space, four decades ago, when Rom & acircnia became the 11th state in the world to have its own cosmonauts / astronauts. At present, the total is 580 people from 38 countries.

Countries that have humans sent into outer space are already framed at a higher level than all other states that have space activities. Romania has stood out in this field since the 1970s, and in 1968 an agreement was signed to engage in international space activities, to develop institutions, to train researchers, to develop experiments with a high level of complexity, and I can say that this This proved after 1990, when the old institutions were reorganized and some were abolished.

Prunariu emphasized that the cosmic flight, as a human experience, was unique. & bdquoAnd now I still have some feelings & icircn anniversary moments. As the launch date approaches, I still feel the thrill I had when the carrier rocket left the 17th platform of the Baikonur Cosmodrome and, consuming 270 tons of fuel, in 8 minutes and 15 seconds, placed me with my partner. My flight, Leonid Popov, was in orbit around Earth at an altitude of about 200 kilometers, initially, and circling around the Earth at 28,000 kilometers per hour.

& Icircn space, the two helped assemble the equipment that was designed and built by specialists, tested. & bdquoAll this was a unique experience. Of course, we expect it to be repeated in the foreseeable future.

About this, Marius Ioan Piso, president of the Romanian Space Agency, which marked a quarter of a century of existence and ten years since joining the European Space Agency (ESA), said: where not only those who will participate directly in the flight program will be selected, but also reserve astronauts and specialists for space missions. Rom & acircnia has a chance to send an astronaut through the European Space Agency in the next few years & rdquo.

On the other hand, he said, the notion of astronaut is now expanding fairly quickly. & bdquoThe spatial domain enters & icircn the private area. The low orbit part, where people go, will also be used for space tourists. At this time, several space stations are being prepared for humans. Humans are less important now in spaceflight, because they have a bad habit of needing food, air and more and more dying, and robots, from this point of view, are a bit more serious and produce better results. On the other hand, humans will be needed for the Moon, maybe for Mars, if we manage to deal with radiation, which is the main blockage & icircn long-haul flights & rdquo.

Vice-president of the Paris-based International Academy of Astronautics, Piso also said that ROSA has projects with the European and French Space Agencies and for various stages in the training of astronauts. "We're not really strangers to that."

President ROSA, when asked if a hydrogen rocket would be launched from the Black Sea, said: "I don't know what it's about. Don't follow Facebook and other news. The world is full of many, many complicated news. From Europe, launches can only be made from Sweden and Norway, in two polygons, from where, so far, no orbital launches have been made, and some possible places for the launch of micro, nano satellites, small rockets, etc. are being prepared. Great Britain and the North Sea, financed by Germany. There are projects & rdquo.

We have been discussing and preparing for a long time a launching pad at Cap Midia, a project with the Army, where, for the time being, high-altitude balloon flights are being carried out, and where we expect, over time, to meet the conditions and policies. , & icircn the first r & acircnd, for a launch across the Black Sea. A real launch is a very complicated operation. Rom & acircnia is the owner of the landfill. We have 1.16% of the 66% of European space in French Guiana, which is a huge base. There are four launch bases - for Ariane 5, for the Europeanized Soyuz, for Vega and the ramp for Ariane 6 is almost ready, where the rocket with part of it will be Romanian & acircnească & rdquo, he also explained.

Prunariu added that the Rom & acircnă Space Agency has nothing to do with the company that is rumored to launch a rocket from the Black Sea.

Piso reviewed the activity and collaborations of ROSA, which he said is a regional leader and is currently developing 17 programs with the European Space Agency.

"Approximately 170 Romanian entities are accepted to work with ESA, and 1,700 to 1,800 of our specialists work in the space field," he said. Rom & acircnia is one of the 12 countries in the program of the most important European missile, Ariane 6, and participates in the Vega program, also the smallest missile of ESA.

Piso is also the chairman of the UN Committee for the Peaceful Exploration of Outer Space, which includes 96 states and more than 30 international organizations, which Prunariu also led ten years ago.

Ion Sorin Zgură, director of the Institute of Space Sciences, which is four decades old, also attended the conference on Tuesday. He specified that the Institute has been & bdquo & icircn permanently connected to all international trends and themes & rdquo. & Icircn present, & bdquocam 95% of the theme is connected on space missions and international collaborations & rdquo.

In 1981, the ISS prepared some of the experiments that were operated aboard the Prunariu, and Dumitru Hasegan, director of the Institute, was then, from the flight's operations center, in Moscow, in connection with the Romanian cosmonaut, to follow the development of scientific experiments.


10 curiosities about dinosaurs for your child

Because they existed long before us, dinosaurs are mysteries of the prehistoric world. Only the skeletons in the museums convince us that these impressive animals really existed. Certainly, children are the most fascinated by these creatures, which they encounter most often in cartoons.

As parents, we can arouse their curiosity by sharing some interesting things:

  1. The word "dinosaur" comes from the Greek and means "extraordinary reptile"
  2. The fastest dinosaur could run at a speed of 60 kilometers per hour
  3. The smallest dinosaur was slightly larger than a chicken and weighed about 2 kg
  4. The most intelligent dinosaur was part of the Troodon species, a hunter 2 meters long and with a brain as large as today's mammals, relative to its total size.
  5. Some dinosaurs had feathers and are considered the ancestors of contemporary birds
  6. In order to have strength, dinosaurs had to eat a lot. Thus, a 40-ton dinosaur consumes about 200 kg of plants daily
  7. The skin of the dinosaurs was made of scales with a gnarled appearance and different sizes, and in some places, such as the abdominal area, the scales were smaller. The color of the dinosaurs was similar to today's reptiles, in shades of brown, yellow and green.
  8. Dinosaurs had fairly large nostrils, the role of which remains difficult to understand. Some researchers believe that one of their purposes could be the emission of sounds. Many believed that the male used these sounds to attract the female or was used by all members of the herd to organize among themselves.
  9. Although some dinosaurs were huge, their eggs were no more than 30 centimeters long. At birth, the chicks of some species were very small, and their parents fed and protected them until they were able to take care of themselves.
  10. The scientists assessed the age of the dinosaurs according to the structure of the bones, just as the age of the trees is determined by the growth rings of the stem. In many cases, the age of the animals did not exceed 70 years.

Want to find out more curiosities? Come with your child to "Jurassic Mall", an exhibition dedicated to the extraordinary world of dinosaurs. Between June 1-26, at Shopping MallDova, your child will look for fossils, watch documentaries and live the experience of an expedition in an area once inhabited by dinosaurs.


Traces of the largest dinosaur in the world have been identified in Scotland

Traces of the largest dinosaur in the world have been identified in Scotland. Researchers say they have discovered traces of 170-million-year-old fossils in a lagoon on the Isle of Skye, which belonged to sauropods, the largest dinosaurs on the planet, writes The Guardian.

The sauropods reached a height of 15 meters and weighed over 10 tons. In addition to these were found traces of theodropes & # 8211 & # 8222the older cousins ​​& # 8221 of Tyrannosaurus rex, which were two meters high.

These are believed to be the oldest dinosaur fossils ever found in Scotland.

Another set of dinosaur tracks were also found on Skye in 2015, but they are slightly younger and much smaller.

Geologists say the new findings are important because evidence from the Middle Jurassic period is scarce and few such sites have been found around the world.

& # 8222The more we search the Isle of Skye, the more we find traces of the dinosaur. This new site records (traces of) two different types of dinosaurs & # 8211 brontosaurus long-necked summers and T. Rex's (remaining) sharp-toothed summers in a shallow lagoon from the time when Scotland was long warmer, and the dinosaurs were beginning their march toward world domination & # 8221, explained Dr. Steve Brusatte of the University of Edinburgh, one of the researchers.

The researchers measured, photographed and analyzed about 50 footprints in a reflux area at Brothers Point (Rubha nam Brathairean) on a promontory on the Trotternish Peninsula. The discovery adds to growing evidence that prehistoric reptiles were spread on Skye at a pivotal period in their evolution.


Stories for children with dinosaurs: The little green dinosaur who ate too many red candies

Once upon a time, there was a small dinosaur that lived in a lovely forest & # 8230
He was about to celebrate his birthday soon. His mother told him, "Be careful, my little Dino, don't eat too much candy for your birthday!"

But the little dinosaur didn't listen to her for her birthday either, she ate tons and tons of candy! And not just any: tomatoes, his favorites!
The next day, when our little green dinosaur went to the bathroom: Alas! Looking in the mirror, he noticed that it turned red!

His mother was not happy at all, and at school everyone had fun at his expense. A dinosaur is green, not red!
To help him, his mother wore a green sweater, green pants, green shoes and a green hat, but there was still nothing to do, it was clear that he was red & # 8230

A few days later, when he was very sad, a fairy appeared and asked him:
-Why are you crying little Dino?
& # 8211 Because I made a big mistake. I didn't listen to my mother and now I'm red, while everyone knows the dinosaurs are green! Said the little dino, crying.
& # 8211 I can help you if you apologize to your mother and drink a bowl of green vegetable soup.

That's what he did and, after a few days, surprise, the little dinosaur was green again and the red candies were no longer his favorites!


Bad news from CCR for "dinosaur" rectors

The Constitutional Court on Wednesday admitted, by unanimous vote, President Iohannis 'appeal against the law that removes limitations related to the rectors' mandates. Therefore, the normative act is returned to the Parliament in order to be agreed with the CCR decision.

& bdquoA admitted, with unanimous votes, the notification of unconstitutionality formulated by the President of Romania and found that the Law on approving the Government Emergency Ordinance no.79 / 2020 for amending and supplementing the National Education Law no. 1/2011, & icircntruc & acirct & icircncalcă the principle of bicameralism & rdquo, shows CCR, & icircntr a press release.

On November 16, 2020, President Klaus Iohannis notified the Constitutional Court with an objection of unconstitutionality regarding the approval of the Government Emergency Ordinance 79/2020 amending and supplementing the National Education Law. Parliament abolished the provision that the terms of office of the rectors were limited to two successive terms, so that they could be renewed without limit. Also, the normative act adopted by the Legislature establishes that psycho-pedagogical training must also provide digital competences for the organization of the online learning process. the process of learning online and online mode & rdquo. The head of state argues that the competence of the first notified Chamber and the principle of bicameralism have been violated.

& bdquoOn October 29, 2020, the Romanian Parliament transmitted to the President of Romania, for the promulgation, the Law on the approval of the Government Emergency Ordinance no. 79/2020 for the amendment and completion of the National Education Law no. 1/2011 (PL-x no. 306/2020). GEO no. 79/2020, approved by the criticized law, amends and completes Law no. 1/2011 on the elaboration and approval of the framework plans for the education of the military high school and regulates the admission by distribution of the graduates of this type of education to the institutions of higher military education, considering the current context. At the same time, the normative act contains provisions regarding the management of military education institutions, according to the specific needs of the structures in the national system of defense, public order and national security. In the form sent for promulgation, the law subject to constitutional review approved GEO no. 79/2020 with the following amendments and completions on Law no. 1/2011: eliminates the provision according to which the mandates of the rectors were limited to two successive mandates, these can thus be renewed without any limit establishes that the psycho-pedagogical training must also ensure digital competences for organizing the online learning process. , management, guidance and control must also provide digital skills for organizing the process of learning in the online mode & rdquo; shows the text of the notification made by the head of state to the RCC.

The quoted source specifies that upon the adoption of the laws criticized by the decisional Chamber, an amendment was made on Law no. 1/2011, with a completely different regulatory object from the one considered by the initiators and the one adopted by the first Chamber. Practically, the decision-making chamber was adopted in addition to another regulation, without any connection with those adopted by the first Chamber or with the content of GEO no. 79/2020. Thus, in the Senate, par. (7) in art. 213 of Law no. 1/2001, in the sense of eliminating the provision by which the mandates of the rectors were limited to two successive mandates, these can thus be renewed without any limitation & rdquo.

Analyzing the legislative course of the criticized law and comparing its forms from the moment of initiation and from the moment of adoption, it can be seen that in the Chamber of Deputies, as the first notified Chamber, the text and the solution of eliminating the limitation of the rectors' significantly modified by the decisional Chamber compared to the form of the initiator and the first notified Chamber, also shows the head of state & icircn notification.

Therefore, the first notified Chamber did not have the opportunity to analyze, debate and decide on the legislative solution newly introduced by the decision-making Chamber. We appreciate that, in this case, the Senate has made a change which, by itself, is likely to lead to a violation of the principle of bicameralism, because this is a change in the conception of regulation. Thus, we consider that, in fact, the new legislative change is a substantial one, with significant consequences, which represents a radical change of legislative philosophy, with effects on the managerial vision of the management of university institutions. Thus, the management of higher education institutions is achieved through a complex mechanism, which has as main objective the quality assurance of the education process at the academic level. Along with the perspective of integrity, this mechanism also has a component related to the manner of holding management positions, including that of rector, which is also important in terms of the decision regarding the persons holding management positions at the university level. More precisely, the National Education Law no. 1/2011 establishes, in particular, the task of the rector, the organization of the public competition for the positions of dean, and their selection, as well as the appointment of vice-rectors and the maintenance of the general administrative director based on his written agreement to support the executive plan of the new rector. . Therefore, any legislative change related to the management of universities is an intervention with a significant impact on the internal democracy of higher education institutions, according to the mentioned source.

President Iohannis claims that compared to the substantive changes brought in the decision-making chamber, the law transmitted for promulgation violates the principle of bicameralism.

Thus, in this case, following the comparative analysis previously presented and taking into account the considerations of principle established by the decisions indicated above, it follows that the final form of the law, by eliminating the limitation of the number of mandates that can be obtained by rectors, is It departs radically and without any objective justification from the original purpose and philosophy of the law, which aimed exclusively at measures concerning military higher education and necessary measures in the context of the current pandemic, according to the text.

Finally, we believe that an increase in the quality of management of higher education institutions can only be achieved if the mechanisms that guide the decision-making process of management positions in the university environment are precisely established, ensure representation, dialogue and public debate. Such a legislative change regarding the mandate of the rectors represents an essential change in the vision of university governance, with significant consequences at the elective level, being likely to affect the effectiveness of the management policy for each university in Romania. Therefore, we reiterate that it would have been mandatory to address this issue of the number of rectors' mandates to be the result of debate and deliberation of each Chamber, including the Chamber of Deputies, and not the result of a unilateral deliberative option of a single Chamber. Appreciating the special importance of this subject regarding the regulation of these unlimited mandates, added by the Senate, the decision to eliminate their limitation cannot belong to a single Chamber, but must form the object of legislation of the entire Parliament, not only in its capacity as sole legislative authority. , but also as the supreme representative body of the Romanian people, and therefore of the national interest & rdquo, concludes the head of state & icircn notification.


(Video) A woman from Florida claims that a & # 8220 dinosaur chickâ & # x20AC; & # x2122; s passed through her yard. The moment was also captured by the surveillance cameras

A woman from Florida, USA, is convinced that a dinosaur passed through her yard.

"Any animal I think of would not have walked at 3:40 in the morning in this way. I may have looked at "Jurassic Park" too many times, but I see a kidnapper or another small dinosaur! ", Said Cristina Ryan, quoted by observatornews.ro.

The woman claimed that all the people to whom she showed the video came to the same conclusion, namely that it appears to be a dinosaur chick.

"Some say it's a big bird, but that doesn't make sense - since it seems to have front legs," Cristina Ryan said.

In the online environment, people debated the topic and came up with other options.
"It looks like a Komodo dragon or some kind of lizard!" One person commented.

"It's a dog with a harness, pulling a leash. You can see all four legs and the harness and leash crawling behind him, ”said another person.

C Z .: That dinosaur certainly barks and screams sometimes at full moon.
Lusya D .: And the kangaroo of the smart ones

Watch the Video here:


The newest exhibit at Dino Parc Râșnov

Diplodocus was a herbivorous dinosaur in the family of sauropods, the largest creatures that ever existed on Earth and lived, more precisely, 150-147 million years ago, in an area of ​​present-day northwestern America, intensely populated with dinosaurs of colossal size. He fed on plants, especially the leaves of the trees, and for that he had an extremely long neck that helped him reach them. Diplodocus also had a very long tail, composed of 80 vertebrae, probably the longest of all time, which he used to maintain his balance when he stood on his hind legs to reach the canopy of trees to feed. . In this position, the new exhibit is reconstructed, which visitors can see at Dino Parc Râșnov.

In addition to dinosaurs, in the park there is an interactive volcano that simulates an eruption and a platform that exemplifies three types of earthquakes: one caused by a volcanic eruption, one caused by a herd of running Seismosaurs and an earthquake caused by tectonic plate movement. Visitors can also discover 5 animatronic dinosaurs that make terrifying sounds, a 360-degree cinema, an interactive augmented reality window and many other interactive areas, both for children and adults.


History of political parties (10): Ceausescu, the last Bolshevik dinosaur

Ceausescu has remained a resonant name in our history, with a "reign" of 25 years, which has left both negative and positive effects in some places. It is very difficult to be objective towards an "official" history, a "manual" one that always changes according to the political regime. Ceausescu is the last communist dinosaur and the last dictator of Romania, because he rose following a hard, genuinely Stalinist line, managing to fool the West in the late 1960s when he publicly protested against the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact troops in the Cold War. . Ceausescu was a complex character always oscillating between internationalism and nationalism-communism, embracing a truly Maoist idolatry. Like any modern satrap, he had a childhood marked by want, poverty and violence. "Many of the attacks on megalomania and frustrations turned into state policies, say some experts, have their roots in the difficult childhood of the former communist dictator. He came from a large family with a father who was said to have been abusive. At the same time, Ceausescu also had a speech defect due to which he suffered humiliations as a child "says Cosmin Pătraşcu Zamfirache.

Born in the year of the Great Union

Nicolae Ceausescu was born on January 26, 1918, in the family of Andruţă and Lixandra Ceauşescu, poor peasants from the village of Scorniceşti who had 10 children, Nicolae was the third. Andruţă Ceauşescu came from a family of shepherds from the Polovragi area, Gorj County. ,, His name had a meaning related to an inferior position in the Ottoman administration, without knowing exactly the connection in the past between this position and the Ceausescu family. Ceausescu's father would have been a supporter of the Peasant Party and would have held an important administrative position in Scorniceşti for a short time. However, Andruţă's luck was short-lived, and the important people from the village, especially the priest from Scorniceşti, would have confessed that Ceauşescu's father would have taken her on the path of alcohol consumption, being characterized as a violent character who stole and drank. . There are also opinions that show that Ceausescu's father was still a quiet, faithful man. The family was poor and they lived in a small two-room house. They ate polenta with milk on a small wooden table and slept crammed on some benches near the wall ”(Cosmin Pătraşcu Zamfirache). Nicolae Ceausescu manages to go through only four classes and his academic results were very poor, he had no books due to poverty and walked barefoot most of the time. Some sources aim at the violent establishment of communism in Romania, but we must also consider the other part that shows that most peasant children lived their lives this way and did not have access to education, especially university, and the peaks that rose from the peasantry. they existed, but the ratio between the children of the rich who attended high school and the poor who could follow this route was clearly superior to the wealthy, especially in the Kingdom. In Transylvania the situation was different because of the Enlightenment elites among the intellectuals and the clergy, a clergy much more educated and different from that in the Kingdom. It is said that Maniu, after the Union, reaching the table with the politicians from the old Kingdom, would have said: "Did we do well to unite with them?" being horrified by their grasps. Let's not forget that the elites in Transylvania had the school of the West in their blood. Without being accused of a kind of "Stalinism" we can say that it is the merit of the communists to take care that those in rural areas have access to education. The illiteracy rate was low during communism and some peasant diseases were eradicated. It is true, however, that the condition of the Romanian peasant suffered greatly, being transformed into a kind of hybrid between the farmer and the working class.

Un Stalin al României

După cum Ana Pauker a mai fost numită ,,Stalin cu fustă”, nici Ceauşescu nu a scăpat de aceste figuri de stil fiind supranumit ,,Stalinul României”. ,,Singurul loc în care s-a regăsit a fost mişcarea comunistă. A aflat despre aceste idei de la cizmarul Alexandru Săndulescu, acolo unde lucra ca ucenic. Unii specialişti afirmă că, de fapt, Ceauşescu, copilul bâlbâit, sărac şi inadaptat, s-a refugiat total în ideologia comunistă ca într-o realitate paralelă. De altfel, era tot ceea ce ştia, fiind îndoctrinat ireversibil” spune sociologul Pavel Câmpeanu iar Adam Burakowski menţiona în lucrarea ,,Dictatura lui Ceauşescu”: ,,Într-un fel sau altul, viitorul conducător român şi-a petrecut în partid practic întreaga viaţă, el aproape că nici nu cunoştea altă lume, ceea ce i-a influenţat în mod serios atât cariera, cât şi deciziile politice. Pe de o parte, educaţia primită în cadrul partidului i-a oferit o perfectă iscusinţă în arta de a desfăşura intrigi şi de a reuşi în lupta pentru putere, dar, pe de altă parte, nu avea nici o idee despre viaţa majorităţii populaţiei, problemele acesteia necunoscându-le în principal decât din propaganda de partid”.

Partidul Comunist Român, un bloc monolitic

,,De la început, spune Vladimir Tismăneanu, deci din martie 1965, Ceauşescu a urmărit monopolizarea puterii. Cariera sa în aparat s-a derulat sub semnul regulilor staliniste ale ,,construcţiei de partid”. Avea o fixaţie legată de ,,unitatea monolitică” a partidului, detesta orice urmă de insubordonare, de gândire autonomă. Fracţionismul i se părea o erezie. În dialogurile mele cu Ion Iliescu am insistat pe acest subiect, dacă n-au existat cumva doi Ceauşescu după moartea lui Dej, cel din 1965-1971 şi cel de după vizita în China şi Coreea de Nord. Iliescu făcea parte din anturajul imediat, putea observa multe lucruri. El susţine că beţia puterii l-a distrus pe Ceauşescu. În realitate, cred că sistemul a rămas neschimbat în structurile sale esenţiale, cu care liderul se identifica total. Ceauşescu nu a permis nici cea mai mică tentativă de limitare a dictaturii aparatului de partid. Sigur, în final s-a ajuns la dictatura familiei şi a sicofanţilor, dar natura sistemului nu s-a schimbat. S-au schimbat elemente de decor, s-au accentuat caracteristici precum grandomania galopantă şi cultul delirant al liderului şi al soţiei sale, dar instituţiile fundamentale au continuat să funcţioneze, chiar dacă tot mai iraţional (aparatul de partid, Securitatea, aparatul judiciar, armata, planificarea, ,,sindicatele”, UTC-ul etc.). Nu cred că un Maurer, un Bodnăraş ori un Răutu au fost ,,păcăliţi” de Ceauşescu. Știau cu cine aveau de-a face, l-au susţinut, l-au încurajat, i-au permis toate binele ştiute extravaganţe”. Jean-Francois Soulet scria în ,,Istoria comparată a statelor comuniste”: PC român avea şi el înfăţişarea unei cazemate. Aflat la putere din martie 1965, Nicolae Ceauşescu a ştiut să controleze deopotrivă prin teamă (omniprezenţa Securităţii), nepotism, printr-o politică de ,,rotire a cadrelor” (remanieri periodice de înalţi responsabili) şi prin acordarea de privilegii aparatcikilor aparatul de partid şi de stat. Doar câţiva excluşi şi căzuţi în dizgraţie mai îndrăzneţi (precum Karoly Kiraly, îndepărtat în 1972 Gheorghe Maurer, fost prim-ministru în anii 60 Silviu Brucan, fost director al ziarului Partidului şi fost ambasador la ONU Corneliu Mănescu, fost ministru al afacerilor externe…) aveau să cuteze, în ultimii ani, să manifeste rezerve în privinţa politicii ,,Conducătorului”.

RSR cel mai scăzut nivel de trai din Europa

Jean-Francois Soulet explică adevărata poziţie a lui Ceauşescu, invulnerabilitatea în ciuda poziţiei de ,,cel mai iubit fiu al poporului”, o utopie, bineînţeles, fabricată de lingăii din jur. În decembrie 1989 Ceauşescu a constatat stupefiat că, de fapt, românii nu-l iubeau. ,,Dar, spre deosebire de omologul său german, poziţiile lui N. Ceauşescu erau infinit mai puţin solide. Din punct de vedere economic, cele două state se aflau în poziţii diametral opuse: dacă RDG fusese mult timp în fruntea statelor Europei de Est, România se afla în coadă, cu cel mai scăzut nivel de trai din Europa (exceptând cazul Albaniei). Deoarece Ceauşescu se încăpăţâna să ramburseze Occidentului întreaga datorie externă a României până în 1990, mizeria domnea în toată ţara, ca urmare a raţionalizării alimentelor de bază, a electricităţii, încălzirii. O asemenea politică accentuase dependenâa economică de URSS. Pentru a evita închiderea totală a uzinelor, aceasta din urmă consimţise să livreze, în 1986, 4 milioane tone de cărbune, 5 milioane tone de petrol, gaz şi electricitate. Proporţia ţărilor socialiste în comerţul extern român ajunsese astfel de la 33,8 % la începutul anilor 80 la 60% la sfârşitul anului 1988. În plus, despotismul şi megalomania ,,Conducătorului” duseseră la desconsiderarea sa şi la accentuarea nemulţumirii în rândul populaţiei. O dată cu noua politică internaţională a lui Gorbaciov, luările de poziţie ale lui N. Ceauşescu considerate cândva independente de Moscova îşi pierduseră originalitatea şi influenţa. În 1989, regimul era total discreditat de politica sa economică dezastruoasă care adusese populaţia într-o situaţie de mizerie şi sărăcie lucie şi de aberantele sale proiecte de ,,sistematizare” şi reconstrucţie a centrului Bucureştiului. Această discreditare internaţională simbolizată de adoptarea la Geneva, în martie 1989, a unei rezoluţii susţinute de Ungaria, care condamnă violările libertăţilor fundamentale în România respingerea lui Gorbaciov, precum şi schimbările în curs din celelalte ţări satelit i-au încurajat, cu siguranţă, pe cei care, în societatea oficială (Partid, armată, poliţie) sau în societatea civilă, doreau, din oportunism sau convingere, îndepărtarea bătrânului ,,Conducător”. Pentru a grăbi acest lucru, ei puteau spera apriori la sprijinul moral al opiniei occidentale şi la ajutorul mai concret al ţărilor comuniste vecine, recent înzestrate cu echipe reformatoare (Ungaria, Iugoslavia, Uniunea Sovietică).

Sfârşitul

Pe seama infantilismului lui Ceauşescu, care încă credea cu tărie că poporul îl iubeşte, tras pe sfoară de apropiaţi, se ţese o lovitură de stat inevitabilă, care era fabricată în ,,laborator” încă din anul 1987, când revolta muncitorilor de la Braşov a fost doar o manevră de pregătire, cu aportul lui Ion Iliescu, omul apropiat al ruşilor. ,,Aşadar, spune Jean-Francois Soluet, în ciuda înspăimântătoarei omniprezenţe a Securităţii şi atmosferei apăsătoare a dictaturii, se ţeseau intrigi, se pregăteau manevre atât în interiorul, cât şi în exteriorul ţării şi asta, în unele cazuri, de mai mulţi ani. Multe dintre ele au rămas secrete, unele au ieşit la suprafaţă. În martie 1989, în mediile occidentale s-a dat publicităţii o ,,scrisoare deschisă” adresată lui Ceauşescu, semnată de şase foşti înalţi demnitari de partid şi de stat. Pe de altă parte, personalităţi considerate suspecte, cum ar fi generalul Militaru (bănuit că ar fi participat la un complot în 1984), Silviu Brucan, fost director al cotidianului Partidului, Ion Iliescu, fost secretar al Comitetului Central, înlăturat în 1971, făceau obiectul unei atente supravegheri. Pe măsură ce schimbările se accelerau în ,,ţările frăţeşti”, era inevitabilă o lovitură de stat. Potrivit diplomatului sovietic Valentin Falin, începând din noiembrie Moscova s-a arătat foarte interesată de ,,desfăşurarea internă a forţelor armate şi creşterea rezistenţei în faţa regimului”. Iritarea şi disperarea populaţiei ajunseseră la un asemenea nivel încât era posibilă ralierea sa masivă la orice soluţie alternativă. Aceste diferite elemente sugerează net iminenţa unei lovituri de forţă induse de personalităţi comuniste potrivnice clanului Ceauşescu, pusă la punct de armată, cu participarea, după toate aparenţele, a serviciilor secrete româneşti şi străine (sovietice şi ungureşti) şi cu adeziunea globală a Kremlinului”. Prin 1998 Soulet aducea trei ipoteze: complot dirijat cu aportul KGB sau de serviciile secrete maghiare revolta populară, teză difuzată de FSN, echipa ajunsă ulterior la putere îmbinarea unei lovituri de stat şi a unei insurecţii populare. Aceasta este mult trâmbiţata ,,Revoluţie Română” din decembrie 1989, care lasă loc unui superb manual de strategie pentru toate serviciile secrete. Un lucru este încă cert: ,,epoca de aur” a lăsat multe urme în societatea românească, care mai sunt încă vizibile. (Ştefan BOTORAN)



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