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Canal House Peach Jam

Canal House Peach Jam

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Makes 6 to 8 half-pint jars

This peach jam recipe makes enough to give a few jars away as gifts, or you could easily halve it.


  • 12 large ripe freestone peaches
  • 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice

Recipe Preparation

  • Using the tip of a paring knife, score an X in the bottom of each peach. Working in batches, cook in a large saucepan of boiling water just until skins begin to peel back where cut, about 1 minute. Using a slotted spoon, transfer to a bowl of ice water; let cool. Peel and cut over a medium bowl into ½”-thick slices to collect juices.

  • Combine peaches with their juices, lemon juice, sugar, and salt in a large saucepan. Let stand, tossing occasionally, until peaches release their juices and sugar is dissolved, about 1 hour. Fit saucepan with thermometer and bring peach mixture to a gentle boil over medium-high heat (you want slices to stay intact). Reduce heat and simmer gently, skimming foam from surface as needed, until peaches are translucent, juices are reduced by half, and thermometer registers 220°, 20–25 minutes.

  • Carefully divide jam among half-pint jars, cover, and chill 12 hours.

  • DO AHEAD: Jam can be made 1 month ahead. Keep chilled.

Recipe by Melissa Hamilton and Christopher Hirsheimer,Photos by Hirsheimer Hamilton

Nutritional Content

Per 1 Tablespoon: Calories (kcal) 35 Fat (g) 0 Saturated Fat (g) 0 Cholesterol (mg) 0 Carbohydrates (g) 8 Dietary Fiber (g) 0 Total Sugars (g) 8 Protein (g) 0 Sodium (mg) 20Reviews Section

Weekend Project: Tomato Preserves

Canning is a one great method for preserving summer’s glut of tomatoes, but another (oft-overlooked) idea is to transform fresh tomatoes into sweet, tangy, jam-like preserves. That’s what Christopher Hirsheimer and Melissa Hamilton , the duo behind the Canal House , a culinary, design and publishing studio, like to do.

“We turn to our preserved tomatoes to get us through the long, dark time between locally-grown tomato seasons,” Hirsheimer and Hamilton told us. “Spooned like jam on warm crusty toast or stirred into things like stews and sauces, preserved tomatoes give us a taste of summer in the dead of winter.”

Part of the appeal of making tomato preserves is that they take well to being made in small batches. “It’s a more manageable process than having to turn your kitchen over for a weekend canning project, with huge canning pots of boiling water and limited counter space,” they explained. Instead, the two will work with five pounds of tomatoes to make up to half a dozen jars of sweet tomato preserves: “By preserving in small batches, you can even do it when you’re in the kitchen baking cookies or preparing dinner.”

Below is their recipe for tomato preserves. Follow their lead and spread the preserves on toast with jamón Serrano. Enjoy it in the morning with café con leche, or in the evening with a glass of dry white wine or really cold fino sherry.

Red Tomato Preserves

2 cups granulated cane sugar

Rind and juice of 2 lemons

A fat 3-inch finger fresh ginger, peeled and thinly sliced

Plunge tomatoes into a pot of boiling water for 20 seconds to loosen their skins. Remove the tomatoes from the pot and when cool enough to handle, peel off the skin. Halve tomatoes crosswise and squeeze out the seeds. Put tomatoes, sugar, lemon rind and juice, ginger, and cinnamon into a large, heavy pot. Cook over medium-high heat until it comes to a boil, stirring from time to time with a wooden spoon to keep the sugar from burning while it melts. Stir gently so the fruit doesn’t break up too much. Reduce heat to low and gently simmer until tomatoes look slightly translucent and the liquid has thickened, about 1 hour. Using a slotted spoon, divide the tomatoes between 4–6 hot sterilized jars. Increase the heat to high and reduce the juices until thick and syrupy, about 5 minutes more. Remove the cinnamon stick. Divide the syrup between the jars and seal. Allow the jars to cool undisturbed for several hours. These preserves will keep in the refrigerator for a few months.

To preserve the tomatoes for a longer shelf life, process them in a hot water bath. Pack the tomatoes into hot, sterilized half-pint jars. Ladle the hot syrup over the tomatoes, leaving 1⁄4-inch headspace. Wipe the rims of the jars clean, then place sterilized lids on top and screw on the rings.

Use tongs to put the jars into a canning pot. Fill the pot with enough water to cover the lids by 2 inches. Bring to a boil and continue to boil for 15 minutes. Use tongs to carefully remove the jars from the water place on a kitchen towel. Allow the jars to cool completely, undisturbed, before you move them. If a jar doesn’t seal you can repeat the water bath process or simply refrigerate and use it. Makes 4–6 half-pints.

Jamon Serrano and Red Tomato Preserves on Toast

Brush small, thin slices of crusty bread with some really good olive oil and toast them in a preheated 400° oven until golden on each side. Let the toasts cool. Drape each toast with a slice (or half a slice if a whole one is too much) of serrano ham. Top the toasts with small spoonfuls of Red Tomato Preserves.

VARIATION: Serve thin slices of Manchego cheese on toasts topped with a small spoonful of Red Tomato Preserves.

Recipe from Canal House Cooking, Volume N° 4, Farm Markets & Gardens (Canal House, 2010)

AIRING NOW! Season Three

Preview: Steven Raichlen’s Project Fire Season Three

Season three of Steven Raichlen's Project Fire is a wrap! Every precaution was taken to bring the entire crew safely back together during these difficult times. With testing, constant hand washing, and mask wearing, even a pandemic couldn't stop the BBQ.

Home town location. New recipes. New viewer involvement. And new grilling techniques you won’t believe. It’s Steven's most sizzling, smoke-scented season ever! Look for it NOW on public television and streaming.

Making Homemade Jams in a Jiffy

5 Quick Jams: Discover the super-simple secrets of homemade jams—chock-full of vibrant herb and fruit flavors. Here’s a naturally sweetened method that takes only 10 to 20 minutes to assemble and cook, plus refrigerator chilling time. What’s more, no special equipment or processing is required. In fact, you may already have on hand all of the ingredients necessary to make the best herb-flavored jams you’ve ever savored.

No Canning Required

Unlike traditional canning, quick jamming doesn’t require sterilized canning jars or lids. To store your quick jams, simply use clean glass jars with lids. (old jelly, olive and salsa jars work fine.) Because these recipes rely on the pectin naturally found in fruit, store-bought pectin packets aren’t needed, either.

These jams should be refrigerated and eaten within one to two weeks, meaning you won’t have pretty jam jars sitting on your shelves for months. Fortunately, this won’t be a problem if you and your family are as delighted with the delicious tastes and textures as we predict.

Quick jamming is a wonderful way to capture summer’s herbs and fruits. In addition to fresh ingredients, you may use dried herbs and frozen berries or peaches. That means you can whip up your favorite homemade herby jam every day of the year—even in winter.

Luscious berries are perfect for this quick and easy method, as are peeled peaches, apricots and plums. You also can create savory (and spicy!) jams with tomatillos, which gel nicely when simmered.

Sweeten Naturally

This approach relies on the natural sweetness of fruit, plus 100 percent apple juice concentrate and honey, which won’t mask the incredible flavors of herbs and fruit. Other natural sweeteners to use are 100 percent white grape juice concentrate and agave nectar.

With this quick jamming method, you have the capacity to develop your own creative blends of herbs and fruits. Experiment with these herbs: mint, basil, lavender, tarragon, rosemary, ginger, garlic, bay leaf, pineapple sage, hyssop, lemon balm and lemon thyme.

To avoid having herb pieces decorating diners’ teeth when they enjoy your jam, use one or more of the strategies below. Here’s how to easily infuse herb flavor when quick jamming:

1. GROUND DRIED HERBS: Add ground or powered herbs directly to fruit mixture when simmering. These herbs will remain in the jam.

2. WHOLE HERBS: Place whole herbs (such as bay leaf, crushed cardamom pods or mint sprigs) in simmering fruit mixture. Remove when cooking is completed.

3. TEA INFUSION: Steep herbs in very hot water for 5 minutes or longer. Herbs can be fresh or dried. Strain and add herb liquid to simmering fruit mixture.

Not Just For Toast

Quick herb-flavored jams are not only delightful at breakfast, but also at brunch or on dessert. In addition to slathering your favorite toast, enjoy quick herb-flavored jams on cakes, cookies, ice cream, cheesecake, yogurt, soft cheeses, crackers, muffins, scones, waffles, pancakes and cereals. Some even serve as a glaze or a delicate sauce for savory meat, such as roast pork. For an extra-special July Fourth dessert, see the recipe for Red, White and Blueberries Parfait.

To find the summer’s finest in-season, locally grown herbs and fruits, check out farmers’ markets, community-supported agriculture programs and other farm-fresh resources.

Perfect Quick Herb-Flavored Jam—Every Time

After you’ve completed cooking, put your jam in a bowl and refrigerate for about an hour until chilled. Then conduct a taste test. It’s easy to adjust your jam recipes to please your own palate:

• If too runny: Strain jam through a fine-mesh strainer to remove excess liquid. Or return jam to a nonstick pan and simmer over low heat to reduce excess liquid.

• If too thick: Stir in a little more apple juice concentrate until you have the desired consistency.

• If not sweet enough: These recipes tend to be on the tart side. To sweeten, return jam to a nonstick pan. Over low heat, add honey, apple juice concentrate (thawed) or your favorite natural sweetener. Simmer to reduce excess liquid.

• If too sweet: Return jam to a nonstick pan. Over low heat, add 1⁄2 cup fruit and a little lemon juice. Simmer to desired consistency and taste.

Once you’re happy with the results, refrigerate your jam in a clean glass jar. Label and eat within two weeks.

Quick Jamming Resources

1. To find the summer’s finest in-season, locally grown herbs and fruits:

* Farmers’ markets, community-supported agriculture programs (CSAs) and other farm-fresh resources: Local Harvest ( or Green People (

* Live wholesale produce auctions sell fruit in bulk, but in quantities not too large for home cooks. (Freeze fruit for futurejamming.) To locate auctions nearest you: Homerville Wholesale Produce Auction (

2. Dried herbs: Mountain Rose Herbs (, San Francisco Herb & Natural Food Co. ( and Frontier Natural Products Co-op (

3. Herb plants and seeds: Companion Plants ( and Sandy Mush Herb Nursery (

A healthy-living writer and photographer, Letitia L. Star has written more than 1,000 published articles, including many on herbs and gardening.

Can you process and can these recipes?

I'm going to try the lavender-peach jam with vanilla recipe using fresh, local peaches. It sounds delicious and the simpler, the better!

Wow - these recipes look fantastic! Are these ok for diabetics? Wasn't sure about the Honey?? So glad to see a sugar-free recipe that doesn't just use a "sugar alternative". Thank you

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Your friends at Mother Earth Living are committed to natural health and sustainable living. Unfortunately, the financial impact of COVID-19 has challenged us to find a more economical way to achieve this mission. We welcome you to our sister publication Mother Earth News. What you sought in the pages of Mother Earth Living can be found in Mother Earth News. For over 50 years, &ldquoThe Original Guide to Living Wisely&rdquo has focused on organic gardening, herbal medicine, real food recipes, and sustainability. We look forward to going on this new journey with you and providing solutions for better health and self-sufficiency.

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Canal House Peach Jam - Recipes

In order for our member stands to remain flexible at this time with restrictions regarding Covid-19, we encourage you to visit their individual websites for the most current information regarding hours and services available or to give them a call. The stands are observing Oregon and CDC requirements and would request that you wear masks and follow distancing requirements.

Please remember that all orchards in Hood River Valley are private property and you should not enter these orchards. The same applies to the Fruit Loop member stands. Please do not enter the orchards of the farm stands without permission from stand staff.


The Hood River Fruit loop is located in the beautiful Hood River Valley at the foot of majestic Mt. Hood. The twenty-nine member stands offer you a variety of wines, fruits, vegetables, flowers, ciders, and food. While there are twenty-nine stands, they are not all open at the same times and dates. Many of the wineries are open all year. Most of the fruit stands open during harvest time, which changes every year. Cooler weather means that the fruit is harvested later, warmer weather makes for an earlier season. Specialty stands, such as blueberries, have a shorter season.

Because of these differences, the Hood River County Fruit Loop wants to ensure that you have the most current information on stand openings. Please check out our website and follow us on Facebook for the latest information.

Canal House Peach Jam - Recipes

I have some friends who recently opened a pizza cart. Which means that they've spent the bulk of the recent 90 degree evenings sharing 84 square feet with a 1,000 degree oven. It's hot, sticky work. The sort of work that requires a cold drink.

Last night my neighbor and I biked over to share a pie, and I also mixed up a batch of Peach Basil Sangria to share as well. I saw the recipe on a blog a few weeks back, and just had to mix some up for myself. And I'm very glad I did -- it is so summer. It's sweet, crisp, light, and perfect for the season. Make some before the too-brief stone fruit season is gone. If you have the patience and forethought, get your peach a few days in advance, and allow it to sit on your windowsill until it becomes obscenely fragrant and juicy.

Peach Basil Sangria
Gourmet Magazine, July 2005, adapted by, further adapted by me

This recipe calls for peach nectar, which is usually a hybrid of a neutral fruit juice like apple, and some peach puree. Many varieties are sweetened with high fructose corn syrup, so read labels carefully if you'd like to avoid that sort of thing.

23 ounces peach nectar (2 cans, or 2/3 of a Looza brand bottle)
zest and juice from 1 lemon
1 cup basil leaves, plus a few additional sprigs or leaves for garnish
1 bottle white wine
1 ripe peach, diced or cut in wedges (depending on whether you'd like it easy to mix into your drink, or easy to fish out)

In a saucepan, combine the peach nectar, basil leaves, and lemon zest. Bring to a simmer, and then remove from heat. Allow to come to room temperature, and then cool in the refrigerator until fully chilled. When chilled, pour through a strainer to remove the zest and basil. Combine the strained infused nectar with the white wine, lemon juice, peach, and the basil leaves that you reserved. Serve over ice.

Updates for June 2021

Notes for June 2021: Spring is here and that means Strawberry season is upon us! It started in Florida, Texas, southern California then March along the Gulf coast, April in the Deep South and west coast, late May through much of the country, and June in northern areas. Cherries and Blueberries are next, following about a month later in each area. Of course, cool weather crops, like Rhubarb, asparagus and greens should be available almost everywhere right now. Check your area's copy calendar (see this page) and call your local farms for seasonal updates.

We also have easy home canning, jam and jelly making, preserving, drying and freezing directions. You can access recipes and other resources from the drop down menus at the top of the page or the site search. If you have any questions or suggestions, feel free to write me! It is easy to make your own ice cream, even gelato, or low fat or low sugar ice cream - see this page. Also note, there are many copycat website listing U-pick farms now. They have all copied their information from here and usually do not ever update. Since 2002, I've been updating the information every day but Christmas so if you see anything wrong or outdated, please write me!

Simple, Everyday Cooking

"There are plenty of traditional recipe-recipes in Canal House's latest cookbook, with ingredients in a column and steps listed in bullet points. And those are wonderful, if you're into that sort of thing. But my favorite recipes in this book come in a more conversational-style, written out in a single paragraph. They remind me of recipes you might find scribbled on an index card, passed down from a family member. Because they're only two or three sentences, these little notes feel made to memorize, which is probably the point. Cook Something is full of recipes to fall-back on, ones you want to make again and again. " —Andrew Spena, Associate Social Media Manager

The follow up to Tieghan Gerard's blog and first book, both called Half Baked Harvest, focuses on full-flavor food with fewer ingredients and less prep time. As you would expect from a food blogger in 2019, Tieghan makes use of the Instant Pot regularly and is partial to displaying her meals on boards. But, with recipes like a rich chocolate icebox cake and mahi-mahi tacos, we're too busy cooking her recipes over and over to hold it against her.

If you're undyingly loyal to your cast-iron skillet: Buy From The Oven To The Table by Diana Henry, $21 on Amazon, out October 1

If you want Korean recipes served up in an endlessly friendly tone: Buy Maangchi's Big Book of Korean Cooking by Maangchi with Martha Rose Shulman, $25 on Amazon, out October 29

If the classics will always have your heart: Buy Joy of Cooking: 2019 Edition Fully Revised and Updated, $28 on Amazon, out November 12

The president eats a lot of pizza — but not how you think

Yes, pizza! Who doesn't love it? It's the ultimate comfort food — the snack of choice for today's undiscerning everyman. Nobody better encapsulates this truth, of course, than self-declared man-of-the-people Donald Trump.

Many may think it's bizarre that Trump eats his pizza by scraping off and eating the toppings and leaving the dough, but it's really not that shocking in a day and age where carbs tend to be considered the enemy. Still, his consumption of fried chicken and hamburgers (with buns) make us wonder if that's really his reasoning, or if he's just a big fan of sauce and cheese.

Also revealed in his quick-fire US Magazine interview: Trump likes cherry and vanilla ice cream, Citizen Kane and hamburgers. But you knew that last one, didn't you?

Canal House Peach Jam - Recipes

The following article is reprinted with permission from the Spring 1992 issue of Gateway Heritage , vol. 12, no. 4 ©1992 by the Missouri Historical Society.

In the mid-1800s, one of the few female physicians in the United States argued that women, unlike men, were natural healers. Dr. Ella Flagg Young explained, “Every woman is born a doctor . . . [while] men have to study to become one.” [1 ] It certainly must have seemed that way. In most nineteenth-century communities, female healers performed almost all of the tasks that professionally trained doctors, nurses, and pharmacists later assumed. As regular physicians became more prevalent, and medical training became more scientific, domestic medicine fell into disrepute. By 1900, academically trained physicians were dismissing traditional female healing practices as irrational and superstitious, ineffective at best and dangerous at worst. However, a historical look at folk healing tells a different story. Far from being random or illogical, domestic medicine was based on empirical evidence, rational calculation, and the time-honored method of trial and error. Women called on an impressive knowledge of native herbs, modern pharmacology, traditional rituals, preventive medicine, and loving care to maintain their families’ well-being. Before the widespread use of antibiotics, the holistic care practiced in the home by female healers was as effective as almost anything contemporary physicians had to offer.

Although academic medicine began to supplant domestic medicine by the end of the century, in isolated communities like the Ozarks region of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, women remained their communities’ primary healers until well into the twentieth century. The material collected by folklorists on these women’s healing practices makes the turn-of-the-century Ozarks an excellent laboratory in which to study what was once a more widely practiced domestic art. [2 ]

Until New Deal programs and World War II changed the region’s economy and infrastructure, bad roads and a lack of ready cash forced most Ozarkers to rely on remedies prepared by their mothers and wives to carry them through periods of illness. As one resident of Taney County, Missouri, remembered:

The nearest doctor was 20 miles away and there was no way to travel only horseback and no money to pay with if he did come. . . . Mother watched over us carefully. There wasn’t money to buy medicine. In the spring she would make sassafras and sage tea to condition our blood. In the summer and autumn we would eat . . . anything we found growing wild, without washing it. Naturally, we would get “wormy.” [Mother] knew the symptoms. Some morning before breakfast she would stir up a mixture of wormfuge [vermifuge] in a skillet of molasses. . . . Before night we were rid of our worms. If one of us needed a tonic Mother went to the woods, peeled some bark from a wild cherry tree, dug some sarsaparilla, some blackroot, and other herbs (I have forgotten), boiled a brew out of it and gave it in regulated doses. . . . She made tea of pennyroyal, mullein, and tansy for our stomach cramps slippery elm she made poultices of and applied to boils. . . . I have often heard Mother wish she would have studied medicine and have been a doctor. She would have made a good one. [3 ]

Though women were not the sole possessors of herbal lore in the Ozarks (many neighborhood “yarb” &ndash or herb &ndash doctors were male), domestic medicine was an almost exclusively feminine art, passed down from mother to daughter. Pioneer women, who brought their family remedies west, learned a great deal about indigenous plants from local Indians. [4 ] Each generation of women built on the knowledge of their forebears, modifying the ingredients of some mixtures, discarding those that did not bring the desired results, and inventing new ones as the need arose. Home remedies seldom actually cured the patient instead, they alleviated the symptoms of the disease. But since, left untreated, the symptoms often killed the patient, this was a highly effective type of medicine.

Nearly all remedies read like recipes, and, like special recipes, women usually learned to prepare them under their mother’s supervision. Here, for example, is one woman’s remedy for whooping cough:

1 ounce fresh red clover blossoms
1 pint boiling water
1 cup honey

Boil blossoms in water and strain. Add honey bottle. Dosage: 1 teaspoon twice daily. [5 ]

Like this cough medicine, most recipes used staple household ingredients, such as lard, honey, or onions to these women added herbs that they grew in their gardens or cuttings from wild plants collected from the surrounding hills.

Doctoring a family required a great deal of knowledge and skill. The array of natural medicaments was vast, and girls had to learn to recognize each one accurately, for mistakes could be fatal. In 1938, in what was undoubtedly not an isolated incident, a six-year-old girl died because she mistook the poisonous water hemlock for angelica root, which Ozarkers often chewed for stomach ailments. [6 ] Women also needed to know how much of each ingredient to use (often measured by the pinch or the handful), how long to boil (till soft, or till all water save a pint had boiled away), and how much to administer. Herbs could either be decocted (boiled), infused (steeped but not boiled), or demulsified (used in an ointment). The leaves of a plant might be used for one ailment, its roots for another, and its berries for still another the seeds of some plants were medicinal even though their flowers were poisonous. In addition, women had to know when to pick the plants to assure their potency. Most roots, for example, had to be gathered in February or March before the sap began to rise. And some plants, such as sassafras and poke, became poisonous at certain points in their growth cycle.

Among the most commonly used medicinal plants were those with astringent qualities, such as sweet gum, myrtle, and yellow dock, which grew wild in the Ozark hills. Administered as teas, these plants shrank the swelling of a sore throat, and, though they could not cure tonsillitis or diphtheria, they lessened the danger of asphyxiation and left the patient considerably more comfortable. Packed into a poultice and applied to the skin, the astringent properties of these plants helped close open wounds and stem bleeding. Astringents were also used to treat diarrhea in adults and a condition known as “summer complaint” in children. Summer complaint, a case of dysentery contracted the first summer after weaning when the child was exposed to warm-weather microbes for the first time, could cause death from dehydration and an imbalance in the electrolytes if left untreated therefore, immediate action was imperative. Ozark mothers dosed sick toddlers with blackberry tea, a powerful astringent, and the children were soon out of danger. [7 ]

Women also knew how to calm colicky babies. Often they would “blow” milk with tobacco smoke to infuse it with a hint of nicotine. Since nicotine stimulates the bowels, this technique aided the expulsion of gas. Calamus root, which acts on the digestive system, was also used to cure colic. One Ozarker reported that even women without babies carried calamus to church to treat suffering infants:

My mother or some of the other motherly souls carried a piece of calamus root, a little penknife and a spoon in the long inner pockets of their long, full skirts. They would go behind the church house and the baby’s mother would hold it while my mother shaved off a bit of the calamus into the spoon, then, she took the baby while its mother milked some of the warm breastmilk into the spoon, mixed it with the calamus and poured it down the baby. In a little while the baby was gurgling and playing as if nothing had been wrong. [8 ]

Other commonly employed natural pharmaceuticals included elder tree bark, which was used as a diuretic we now know that it contains a purgative resin. Chapped skin was treated with possum fat, mutton tallow, or beeswax. To disinfect wounds, Ozarkers applied turpentine or kerosene. Some women also applied mold &ndash scraped from bread, jam, or orange peelings &ndash to cuts to prevent infection. Others dabbed cuts with honey, which helped kill bacteria by drawing water from the microorganisms. Serious wounds were stanched with flour, the dust of puffballs, or cobwebs, and then stitched up with needle and thread. [9 ]

Another therapeutic tool was the poultice, which was used to treat a variety of ailments. Women usually made poultices by adding pharmaceutical agents to a soft ingredient like cornmeal or lard. They often applied the poultices hot, which brought blood to the surface and thus aided healing. When applied to wounds, poultices commonly included a disinfectant and an analgesic for cleaning and anesthetizing. When applied to the chest (onion and mustard poultices were the favorites for this area), they unclogged congested breathing passages. Not only did the heat help to relieve congestion, but the fumes from the onions and mustard loosened phlegm and provoked coughing. By helping the victim expel secretions from the throat and lungs, the poultice worked to lessen the risk of infection and forestall the development of pneumonia, a frequent cause of death before the widespread use of antibiotics.

Women also treated colds and other congestive diseases by wrapping a woolen sock or cloth around the patient’s throat. This worked like a fever, raising the temperature within the throat, to aid the immune system’s fight against the infection. They also plied the patient with plenty of hot liquids &ndash chicken soup and weak herbal teas &ndash which loosened secretions and thus sped healing. [10 ]

Botanical pharmaceuticals formed the basis of most remedies, but farm women also used the staple nineteenth-century drugs &ndash laudanum (an opium preparation), morphine, and quinine &ndash which were readily available in local stores. [11 ] Women generally knew about advances in medicine and changed their recipes to use new drugs and techniques. Witness this remarkable salve concocted by a woman born in 1892 in Carroll County, Arkansas: “Perhaps there is no better healing salve known than the Green Persimmon Salve. This is made by slicing twelve persimmons straight through while the seeds are still tender. Add one teacupful of hog’s lard and fry until well done. Strain and add fifteen drops of carbolic acid. Pour into well sterilized jars and use on cuts and wounds.” [12 ] This remedy combined traditional elements with modern medicine. The persimmons in the recipe acted as an astringent, which would have helped close the wound. The lard aided absorption because it is oil-based, like skin. But the use of carbolic acid and sterilized jars indicates that this woman knew about antiseptic techniques.

In addition to fighting diseases after they struck, women also worked to forestall illness. Spring tonics were a favorite method of preventive care. Ozarkers believed that tonics restocked vital reserves of energy and nutrients, which people needed for good health. In an attempt to replenish all parts of the system, most women made their tonics from a number of roots harvested in February and March before the sap rose. Although sassafras tea was a popular spring tonic in the Ozarks, it was by no means the only one. Every family had its own favorite concoction. One Ozark woman’s recipe, which had been passed down in her family for generations, consisted of equal amounts of sassafras, burdock, sarsaparilla roots, blue burvene, wild cherry, dogwood bark, and mayapple root. This was boiled until a heavy liquid formed whiskey was added as a preservative and the mixture was then bottled. She dosed all the adults in her family with one tablespoonful (the children got a teaspoon), two to three times a day for a month. [13 ] Another woman recommended the following: “Boil equal parts Sarsaparilla root, Wahoo root and Dogwood bark for 1/2 hour. Strain. Add enough whiskey to preserve liquid: Add 1 cup rock candy to sweeten. Give three tablespoonfuls each morning before breakfast as a spring tonic.” [14 ]

These tonics achieved several different results. Made from botanicals rich in vitamins and trace minerals, they were prepared and drunk in early spring, and hence provided much-needed nourishment after a nutrient-poor winter. Tonics also stimulated the appetite thus, dosed with tonics, Ozarkers ate more, which helped them build strength for the grueling labor that greeted every farm family as the weather warmed. In addition to stimulating digestion, various chemicals in the tonics also stimulated circulation and liver and excretory functions. [15 ] Thus fortified, Ozarkers were far better equipped, psychologically and nutritionally, to fight off the warm-weather diseases of the months ahead.

Ozarkers took many other preventive measures as well. “When I was little,” one University of Arkansas student reported in 1955, “my mother never let me get through a winter without a ‘coal oil rag’ on my chest. She mixed a little hog lard, turpentine, coal oil, and camphor on a piece of Daddy’s woolen underwear and pinned it next to my skin. She always got it good and hot ‘so as to open the pores good.’ When my two sisters came along, Mom added Vicks salve.” [16 ] Coal oil rags were also known as “Sally rags,” which many children wore during the Ozark winters. Sally rags did, indeed, help keep the children warm, and their fumes helped keep nasal passages clear, so bacteria would not find a welcoming environment. In addition, Ozark mothers frequently required their school-age children to wear, hung around their necks, a bag containing the odoriferous asafetida (the name is derived from the Latin foetida, meaning smelly). One man quipped that if “asfidity” did work to ward off germs, it was probably because “a cold germ might well back down when faced with the odor.” [17 ] Perhaps by making sure their own children smelled bad, mothers prevented other children with runny noses and dirty hands from getting close enough to pass along an infection.

Most of the “doctoring” a woman did was confined to her own family occasionally, however, she treated neighbors as well. A woman would consult the more accomplished herbalists of her areas when her own remedies had failed to give sufficient relief. [18 ] Women were also likely to be called to a neighbor’s to assist during childbirth. By the 1890s, male doctors delivered some babies in the Ozarks, but many women continued to rely on their local midwife aided by female neighbors until after the turn of the century. Poor roads and long distances sometimes prevented doctors from arriving in time even when they were called. Thus, expectant mothers usually had neighborhood women stay with them during their confinement. Furthermore, doctors relied on midwives for assistance since there were few trained nurses. [19 ]

Midwives in the Ozarks were well-respected members of the community, who performed their duties as a service to their neighbors, not for remuneration. Most were older women whose own children were grown (leaving them free to stay with a laboring woman for days at a time, if need be), and who had learned their trade from another midwife. They carried a “midwife’s book” with them to assist them during complicated deliveries when no doctor was available, but most of their knowledge came from experience. [20 ] Midwives knew to give their patients blackberry tea (an astringent) both during and immediately after the birth to prevent hemorrhaging. Raspberry tea, which relaxes uterine muscles, was administered to improve the efficiency of labor. Slippery elm bark (which was also used as an abortifacient) could be given to speed delivery. And finally, when labor was particularly protracted, a woman might be “quilled”: a turkey quill was filled with snuff and blown into her face. The resulting sneezes helped expel the baby as well as the tobacco. [21 ]

When there was a doctor in attendance, his job was done after the baby’s delivery. The midwife, however, stayed to care for the newborn and the recovering mother. She first attended to hygiene, cleaning up the bed and the mother (which helped prevent puerperal fever) as well as the infant. She often wrapped the newborn in its father’s shirt or its mother’s petticoat for luck. Many midwives washed the newborn’s eyes in the mother’s milk or even the mother’s urine. A woman from Alpena, Arkansas, explained that urine “was what they always used when she was young and in her mother’s time too. They used this instead of silver nitrate that they use now.” [22 ] Most midwives also gave the newborn a weak catnip or onion tea to make the infant break out in hives, considered essential for the infant’s health. Having doctored both mother and child, the midwife would then depart, leaving the mother in the care of her female neighbors and kin, who performed her household chores the next few days so that she could remain in bed. (Indeed, it was considered bad luck to leave a mother and her newborn baby by themselves the first night of birth). [23 ] This kind of care &ndash having someone to help with cooking and housework &ndash was among the most beneficial new mothers received.

The midwife and the neighborhood women who gathered to aid a delivery performed a number of rituals that gave the laboring woman psychological, if not physical, relief from her pain. Sometimes they gave the woman her husband’s hat to hold, which brought him symbolically into the delivery room. If the labor was particularly severe, an axe or knife might be placed under the bed to “cut” the pain in two. During prolonged labor, the assisting women would sometimes throw open every door and window in the house, in a symbolic representation of opening the birth canal. But when the pain grew too relentless, the mother was given a morphine tablet procured at the local crossroads store. [24 ]

Childbirth, then, like all other aspects of domestic medicine, often contained elements of superstition and symbolism as well as effective and creditable pharmaceuticals. Although herbalism was at the heart of domestic medicine, many treatments involved myth and ritual as well. Indeed, this was part of their power and was an integral component of women’s healing art. While physicians concentrated on fighting the disease, women concentrated on caring for the patient in ways that involved far more than simply dispensing a drug. Women practiced a kind of care toward which many modern physicians are gradually returning, a holistic approach that combined an understanding of local belief systems with a knowledge of herbalism and modern pharmacology. [25 ]

The competence of female healers cannot be dismissed as simply superstitious nonsense. The range of problems they treated was vast, and their efforts at curing sometimes succeeded after physicians had given up hope. One man, a resident of Washington County, Arkansas, tells how his grandmother saved him from near death. “After the doctor gave me up with diphtheria, my grandmother stripped a long turkey feather down until there was a small duster on the end. She ran this down my throat and brought it out with a twisting motion. The phlegm that had clogged my throat came out with it.” [26 ]

Yet some home remedies were of questionable value, and as medicine became more professionalized, regular physicians denounced domestic medicine as unsafe and unhygienic. However, these doctors greatly exaggerated the risks of folk medicine. Domestic healing practices were certainly unscientific, rooted in superstition, ritual, and myth, but most were relatively noninvasive. In addition, the women who administered cures washed dishes several times a day in hot, soapy water, so their hands stayed clean. Furthermore, most botanical medicines administered by women were nontoxic, so overdosing was seldom a problem. The few plants known to be dangerous, like belladonna and jimsonweed &ndash both powerful narcotics &ndash were used sparingly or not at all. (Jimsonweed was applied directly to wounds so that some of its anesthetizing agents could be absorbed through the skin, but it was seldom taken internally since the line between a therapeutic and toxic dose was too difficult to determine.) [27 ]

Probably the most accurate charge leveled against home healing techniques was that some of them were simply ineffective. Without a doubt, many practices had no medicinal value whatsoever. Many Ozarkers believed, for example, that certain ailments could be magically cured by someone with special powers. This might be a person who had never known his father, or the seventh son of a seventh son, or someone who had been born with a caul. This “power doctor” (who could be male or female) would pass his or her hands over the sufferer and mutter a few words, and, with any luck, the patient’s abdominal pain, thrush infection, bleeding, or other ailment would be cured. [28 ] Such superstitious behavior (and there were many others) caused doctors to dismiss home care out of hand.

What regular physicians failed to understand, however, was that rural medicine was rooted in the folk beliefs of the people it served and that the mysticism surrounding it aided its power to cure. Prayer and ritual encouraged confidence in the treatment and tapped the mind’s healing powers in the fight against disease. Healing resulted as much from faith in the cure, and trust in the person administering it, as from any objective qualities in the poultice, tea or ointment. A patient’s belief in the healing process has curative power of its own, and recent studies bear out the idea that a patient’s state of mind can speed or delay healing. [29 ] As one Boone County, Arkansas, woman, who had the power to “blow out the fire” of a burn, explained, “First, you have to have faith or you can not do it.” [30 ] Women themselves swore by their cures. “I had to do my own doctoring for my children,” one mother reported. “I never paid out very much for doctor bills with my kids, for I could doctor them very well myself. . . . I believe there’s just a lot of remedies like that that beats the medicine they have today.” [31 ] Armed with a belief in their power to cure, Ozark women were able to instill in their patients a similar confidence in their abilities. [32 ]

The bitter taste of most herbal remedies increased patients’ belief in their effectiveness (the very chemicals which give herbs their medicinal qualities also give them their horrible taste). As one woman remarked of her mother’s mullein cough syrup: “It really works. The stuff tasted so bad that I was afraid to cough.” [33 ] Vance Randolph, the well-known observer of Ozark life, also reported that “the hillfolk seem to feel that the efficacy of a treatment varies directly with its unpleasantness bitter tea is always best, and the more a poultice hurts, the better they like it.” [34 ]

In addition to their confidence in herbalism, women generally regarded prayer and faith in God as essential to both spiritual and bodily health. They not only prayed for the patient but with him or her, and they sometimes recruited others to come into the home and pray when the situation grew grave. One Ozark woman, Mary Brisco, recorded in her memoirs that “god is best of healers if we will only trust him. . . . Oh, if we could only trust him more maby we wouldent be sick so much.” When her husband lay near death, a group of “Christian folks” from the local church gathered at his bedside and stood in silent prayer. She had no doubt that their prayers cured him. [35 ] Although the degree of religious commitment varied from individual to individual, most Ozarkers, whether “churched” or not, shared Brisco’s deep faith in the healing powers of prayer.

Ozark medicine also involved “magico-religious” chants, amulets, and charms. Ozarkers tended to view diseases as caused by evil poisons (“pizens”) that had invaded the body. They were, of course, correct in that view, since most killer diseases of their day (unlike today) were bacterial in origin. While mothers administered teas and liniments to ease the suffering caused by an infection, they also tried to drive out the invader through a “counterspell” involving ritual and incantation. To treat chills, for instance, a child was instructed to tie a string around a hickory tree and recite “With chills and fever I cannot agree I tie you hard and fast around this hickory tree.” Ritualistic repetitions &ndash sometimes words, more often numbers &ndash were commonly used as well. The numbers three and nine, which have been symbolically significant to both pagans and Christians for hundreds of years, were most often employed. For example, one woman treated malaria by giving the sufferer eighteen dogwood berries, doled out in a particular ritualistic sequence: one a day for nine days wait three days three per day for three days in a row. Another mother made a tea for treating colds from nine buds picked from nine different mullein plants. [36 ] Likewise, spring tonics were often taken three days at a time, although this may have been partly functional since herbal teas generally take about three days to work. [37 ]

Many Ozark mothers also recommended amulets, in the form of string, ribbon, or necklaces, to relieve pain and ward off illness. Many Ozarkers wore buckeyes, a piece of lead, or a mole’s foot around their necks to keep from getting sick. While these had no therapeutic value, they served as a reminder that someone cared, which gave the wearer a psychological edge against disease. [38 ] Amulets, ranging from beads made of cotton seed to rattlesnake bones, were hung around babies’ necks to try to ease the pain of teething. For rheumatism, many elderly people wore copper or brass bands around their wrists or ankles. Still others believed that wearing a pair of “crawdad” claws on a string around the neck would cure a stomachache. [39 ] These amulets could provide a sense of mastery over pain &ndash and they were the only alternative treatment to addictive narcotics such as belladonna, laudanum, or morphine.

Doubtless many of the magico-religious cures were used with the understanding that they provided little more than psychological relief, but even when herbal remedies were employed, most Ozark mothers believed that a charm would not hurt and just might help. For example, most women treated nail wounds by greasing them and applying jimsonweed “to draw out the poison,” but some greased the nail as well as the foot, for added insurance. The nail was then buried or thrown away, symbolically carrying the poison with it. [40 ] Ritual was also practiced when procuring medicinal plants. When acquiring elder bark for treating boils, for example, the bark was supposed to be scraped upward in order to help draw out the infection. When they gathered peach tree leaves to make a tea to stop vomiting, however, women stripped the leaves downward, a symbolic representation of the hoped-for result. To relieve diarrhea, on the other hand, peach tree bark was scraped upward. [41 ]

Healing rituals helped patients in ways that modern medicine cannot. They aided them in dealing with their distress and gave them a sense of control &ndash a powerful psychological medicine. They also helped to dispel the fear of disease and to provide group support, for participation in ritual such as prayer reinforced patients’ belief that they had allies in their battle against the disease. [42 ] And the most important ally of all, the one most likely to be administering both the ritual and the medicine, was the patient’s mother, daughter, or wife.

A final weapon in a woman’s medicinal arsenal was her heartfelt concern for the sufferer. Since the patient was probably her husband, child, parent, or neighbor, the illness was likely to trouble her deeply. She demonstrated her love and concern by acting quickly to medicate the patient, changing the dressings throughout the day, keeping vigil at the bedside throughout the night, spooning warm soup into a child’s feverish mouth, and praying. When the patient regained health, it was partly due to the botanical cure, but it was partly due, too, to the loving care administered at the bedside.

Women healed the sick by ministering to their souls as well as their bodies. They mobilized patients’ hopes and restored their confidence their role was psychological, spiritual, and physical. While none of their techniques could match the power of today’s antibiotics and other tools of modern medicine, domestic medicine was more effective than it has been given credit for. At a time when little else was available, women maintained the health of their families and neighbors with home remedies, prayer, ritual, and love. That was no small achievement.

Janet L. Allured is Assistant Professor of History at McNeese State University in Lake Charles, Louisiana

[1 ] Quoted in Regina Markell Morantz-Sanchez, Sympathy and Science: Women Physicians in American Medicine (New York, 1985), p. 5. [Back]

[2 ] I have chosen to focus on the Ozarks because the area offers a rich array of sources for study. The Ozarks was one of the regions of the United States which became of interest to “local color writers” and folklorists in the 1920s. As a result, a great deal of material about Ozark folk life was collected. However, the healing practices described in this paper were by no means unique to the Ozarks. Cf. Thomas R. Brendle and Claude W. Unger, Folk Medicine of the Pennsylvania Germans: The Non-Occult Cures (New York, 1970) John Q. Anderson, Texas Folk Medicine (Austin, Tx., 1970) Ray B. Browne, Popular Beliefs and Practices from Alabama (Berkeley, 1958) William Madsen, The Mexican-Americans of South Texas (New York, 1964). On the history of academic medicine, see John S. Haller, Jr., American Medicine in Transition, 1840-1910 (Urbana, Ill., 1981). [Back]

[3 ] Ruth Siler Deen, “Pioneer Remedies,” n.d. (probably 1940s), “Otto Ernest Rayburn’s Folk Encyclopedia,” vol. R7, scrapbook, Special Collections Division, University of Arkansas Libraries, Fayetteville. [Back]

[4 ] The Mary Parler Collection of folklore is replete with references to cures with Indian derivations. Mary Celestia Parler, ed., “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” bound typescript, 1962, Mullins Library, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, nos. 1300, 1452, 1612, 1642, 1731, 1763. “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas” consists of fifteen typescript volumes of information gathered by the students in Mary Celestia Parler’s folklore classes at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, over the period 1955 to 1961. See also Cora Pinkley Call, Within My Ozark Valley (Eureka Springs, Ark., 1956). Call’s mother was an accomplished herb doctor, but she had been taught by her father, who was part Cherokee. [Back]

[5 ] Opa Lee Arnold Taylor, Medicine Time in the Hills of Home (Silver Hill, Ark., 1963), p. 3. [Back]

[6 ] Vance Randolph, Ozark Magic and Folklore (New York, 1964), p. 95 originally printed as Ozark Superstitions (New York, 1947). Angelica is used worldwide for a variety of stomach and intestinal disorders. Matthias Hermann, Herbs and Medicinal Flowers (New York, 1973), p. 20. [Back]

[7 ] Walter H. Lewis, Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Man’s Health (New York, 1977), p. 287 Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 796, 2058 Interviews with Polly Anne Carroll and Clara Hubbard Murray, conducted by author, Boone County, Arkansas, May 1987. [Back]

[8 ] Call, Within My Ozark Valley, p. 27. [Back]

[9 ] Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 699, 1478, 1690, 1696, 1699, 2026-30, 2032-33, 2529. [Back]

[10 ] Ibid., nos. 1788-1844, 1946-70, 1994-2015, 3178-79. [Back]

[11 ] Ellen Gray Massey, ed., Bittersweet Earth (Norman, Okla., 1978), p. 309 Call, Within My Ozark Valley, p. 44 Nancy McDonough, Garden Sass: A Catalog of Arkansas Folkways (New York, 1975), p. 251. [Back]

[12 ] Call, Within My Ozark Valley, p. 45. [Back]

[13 ] Massey, ed., Bittersweet Earth, p. 319. [Back]

[14 ] Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” no. 1371. [Back]

[15 ] Simon Mills, The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism (New York, 1985), p. 203. [Back]

[16 ]. Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 1814-20, 2010. [Back]

[17 ] Quoted in McDonough, Garden Sass, p. 251. The wearing of asafetida was widely reported in the folklore collections at the University of Arkansas. My own interviews with elderly Ozarkers confirms that it was a common practice to wear asafetida to school. [Back]

[18 ] Call, Within My Ozark Valley, p. 43. [Back]

[19 ] Interviews with Ola Hodges, Polly Anne Carroll, and Hazel Jenkins Jones, conducted by author, Boone County, Arkansas, May 1987 “Physicians Visiting Lists of Dr. Leonidas Kirby,” 1878-1910, Harrison, Arkansas, in the possession of Dr. L. Ben Kirby, Baton Rouge, La. (Copy in possession of the author.) [Back]

[20 ] “Otto Rayburn’s Folk Encyclopedia,” s.v. “Granny Woman,” Special Collections Division, University of Arkansas Libraries, Fayetteville Ella Ingenthron Dunn, Granny Woman of the Hills (Branson, Mo., 1978) Walter O. Cralle, “Social Change and Isolation in the Ozark Mountain Region of Missouri” (Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1934), pp. 185-186 Call, Within My Ozark Valley, p. 41 Interview with Bertha Sparks, conducted by Kay Murnan and Nancy Sneed, Pruitt, Arkansas, June 10, 1983, Upper Big Buffalo Area Oral History Project, Center for Ozark Studies, Harrison, Arkansas. [Back]

[21 ] Dunn, Granny Woman of the Hills, p. 6 Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 93, 146-165 Vance Randolph, The Ozarks: An American Survival of Primitive Society (New York, 1931), p. 201 Ben Charles Harris, Kitchen Medicines (Barre, Mass., 1968), p. 128 Samuel J. Touchstone, Herbal and Folk Medicine of Louisiana and Adjacent States (Princeton, La., 1983), p. 106 Mills, The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism, pp. 179, 194. Quilling was a common practice among American midwives. See Richard W. and Dorothy C. Wertz, Lying-In: A History of Childbirth in America (New York, 1977), p. 15. [Back]

[22 ] Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 602, 720-23 Randolph, Ozark Magic, p. 202. [Back]

[23 ] Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 181-85, 190, 735-51 Randolph, Ozark Magic, p. 204 Interview with Clara Hubbard Murray, conducted by author, Boone County, Arkansas, May 1987. [Back]

[24 ] Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 146-49. 162 Randolph, Ozark Magic and Folklore, pp. 199-201 Interviews with Ola Hodges, Eulah McMahan Hudson, and Hassie Hudson Pfifer, conducted by author, Harrison, Arkansas, May 1987. [Back]

[25 ] Barbara Ehrenreich and Deirdre English, Witches, Midwives, and Nurses: A History of Women Healers (Old Westbury, N.Y., 1973) Jeanne Achterberg, Woman as Healer (Boston, 1990). [Back]

[26 ] Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” no. 2071. [Back]

[27 ] Mills, Dictionary of Modern Herbalism, p. 131 Maida Silverman, A City Herbal: A Guide to the Lore, Legend and the Usefulness of 34 Plants That Grow Wild in the City (New York, 1977), p. 9 Lewis, Medical Botany, p. 54 Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 2527, 2643. [Back]

[28 ] Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 887, 1377, 1490, 1492, 1495, 1498, 1500, 2073, 2480. See also Randolph, Ozark Magic, pp. 122-24. [Back]

[29 ] Henry K. Beecher, M.D., “The Powerful Placebo,” Journal of the American Medical Association, December 24, 1955, pp. 1602-6 Herbert Benson, M.D. and Mark D. Epstein, “The Placebo Effect: A Neglected Asset in the Care of Patients,” Journal of the American Medical Association, June 23, 1975, pp. 1225-26 Eugene L. Vickery, M.D., “Our Art, Our Heritage,” Journal of the American Medical Association, August 19, 1983, pp. 913-15. [Back]

[30 ] Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” no. 1632. [Back]

[31 ] Quoted in Massey, ed., Bittersweet Earth, p. 182. [Back]

[32 ] Ozarkers’ conviction that these home remedies were effective is reported throughout the Mary Parler Collection. Nearly every person who recorded one of these cures also noted that “it really works.” [Back]

[33 ] Ellen Gray Massey, ed., Bittersweet Country, p. 253. [Back]

[34 ] Randolph, Ozark Magic, pp. 92-93. Folklorists in other areas of the country reported similar findings. In the Midwest, for example, “Home remedies and botanical medicines were esteemed in proportion to their potency or bitterness.” Madge E. Packard and R. Carlyle Buley, The Midwest Pioneer: His Ills, Cures, and Doctors (New York, 1946), p. 42. [Back]

[35 ] Mary Susan High Brisco, “The Story of My Life,” typescript, 1954, MS D774, Special Collections Division, University of Arkansas Libraries, Fayetteville. [Back]

[36 ] Reported in McDonough, Garden Sass, p. 251 Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 1744-51, 1832. The ritualistic use of the numbers three and nine can be found frequently throughout the cures reported in the Mary Parler Collection. [Back]

[37 ] Touchstone, Herbal and Folk Medicine of Louisiana, p. 14. [Back]

[38 ] Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 822, 1225, 1322, 1699, 3017, 5751. [Back]

[39 ] Ibid., nos. 811-45, 3001-10, 3276-77. [Back]

[40 ] Ibid., no. 2647 Randolph, Ozark Magic, pp. 157-58. [Back]

[41 ] Parler, “Folk Beliefs from Arkansas,” nos. 1551, 3497, 3907. Vance Randolph observed similar practices: “The old-timers say that if the pain is in the lower part of the body, it is best to scrape the bark downward, to drive the disease into the legs and out at the toes. If the bark in such a case were stripped upward, it might force the pizen up into the patient’s heart, lungs, or head, and kill him instantly.” Ozark Magic, p. 95. [Back]

[42 ] Ari Kiev, Magic, Faith, and Healing: Studies in Primitive Psychiatry Today (New York, 1964), p. 63 Lauri Honko, “On the Effectivity of Folk Medicine,” in Carl-Herman Tillhagen, ed., Papers on Folk Medicine Given at an Inter-Nordic Symposium at Nordiska Museet, Stockholm, 8-10 May 1961 (Stockholm, 1963), pp. 140-41. [Back]

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